Starting in , Michael Bond published humorous stories about Paddington Bear. Boarding schools in literature are centred on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, and are most commonly set in English boarding schools. Ruth Manning-Sanders collected and retold fairy tales. Raymond Briggs ' children's picture book The Snowman has been adapted as an animation, shown every Christmas on British television.
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Margery Sharp 's series The Rescuers is based on a heroic mouse organisation. Anthony Horowitz 's Alex Rider series begins with Stormbreaker It follows the coming of age of two children, Lyra Belacqua and Will Parry, as they wander through a series of parallel universes. The three novels have won a number of awards, most notably the Whitbread Book of the Year prize, won by The Amber Spyglass. Northern Lights won the Carnegie Medal for children's fiction in His fantasy, The Graveyard Book , traces the story of a boy who is raised by the supernatural occupants of a graveyard.
Rowling 's Harry Potter fantasy sequence of seven novels chronicles the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter. The series began with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in and ended with the seventh and final book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in ; becoming the best selling book-series in history. The series has been translated into 67 languages,   so placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history.
While Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe in spawning so many imitations it defined a genre, Robinsonade , adventure stories written specifically for children began in the nineteenth century. The Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W. Kingston , R. Ballantyne and G.
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Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries.
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In the s he began publishing his Swallows and Amazons series of children's books about the school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the English Lake District and the Norfolk Broads. Many of them involve sailing; fishing and camping are other common subjects. Between — there were 60 issues with stories about Biggles,  and in the s occasional contributors included the BBC astronomer Patrick Moore.
Between and , W. Johns contributed sixty stories featuring the female pilot Worrals. Geoffrey Trease and Rosemary Sutcliff  brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel. An important aspect of British children's literature has been comic books and magazines.
Amongst the most popular comics have been The Beano and The Dandy both published in the s. Important early magazines or story papers for older children were the Boy's Own Paper , published from to  and The Girl's Own Paper published from until The Eagle was a popular British comic for boys, launched in by Marcus Morris , an Anglican vicar from Lancashire. Revolutionary in its presentation and content, it was enormously successful; the first issue sold about , copies. Children's literature has been a part of American culture since Europeans first settled in America.
The earliest books were used as tools to instill self-control in children and preach a life of morality in Puritan society. Eighteenth-century American youth began to shift away from the social upbringing of its European counterpart, bringing about a change in children's literature. It includes what is thought to be the earliest nursery rhyme and one of the earliest examples of a textbook approaching education from the child's point of view, rather than the adult's. One of the most famous books of American children's literature is L.
Children's reading rooms in libraries, staffed by specially trained librarians, helped create demand for classic juvenile books. Reviews of children's releases began appearing regularly in Publishers Weekly and in The Bookman magazine began to publish regular reviews of children's releases. The first Children's Book Week was launched in In that same year, Louise Seaman Bechtel became the first person to head a juvenile book publishing department in the country. She was followed by May Massee in , and Alice Dalgliesh in The American Library Association began awarding the Newbery Medal , the first children's book award, in The young adult book market developed during this period, thanks to sports books by popular writer John R.
The already vigorous growth in children's books became a boom in the s, and children's publishing became big business. White published Charlotte's Web , which was described as "one of the very few books for young children that face, squarely, the subject of death". The s saw an age of new realism in children's books emerge. Given the atmosphere of social revolution in s America, authors and illustrators began to break previously established taboos in children's literature. Controversial subjects dealing with alcoholism, death, divorce, and child abuse were now being published in stories for children.
Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are in and Louise Fitzhugh 's Harriet the Spy in are often considered the first stories published in this new age of realism. Taylor in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry continued the tradition of the historical adventure in an American setting. Laura Numeroff published If You Give a Mouse a Cookie in and went on to create a series of similarly named books that is still popular for children and adults to read together. Lloyd Alexander 's The Chronicles of Prydain was set in a fictionalized version of medieval Britain.
Erik Werenskiold , Theodor Kittelsen , and Dikken Zwilgmeyer were especially popular, writing folk and fairy tales as well as realistic fiction. The translation into English by George Webbe Dasent helped increase the stories' influence. Swiss author Marcus Pfister's Rainbow Fish series has received international acclaim since By the s, literary realism and non-fiction dominated children's literature. More schools were started, using books by writers like Konstantin Ushinsky and Leo Tolstoy , whose Russian Reader included an assortment of stories, fairy tales, and fables. Books written specifically for girls developed in the s and s.
Publisher and journalist Evgenia Tur wrote about the daughters of well-to-do landowners, while Alexandra Nikitichna Annenskaya 's stories told of middle-class girls working to support themselves. Vera Zhelikhovsky , Elizaveta Kondrashova , and Nadezhda Lukhmanova also wrote for girls during this period.
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Children's non-fiction gained great importance in Russia at the beginning of the century. A ten-volume children's encyclopedia was published between and Vasily Avenarius wrote fictionalized biographies of important people like Nikolai Gogol and Alexander Pushkin around the same time, and scientists wrote for books and magazines for children.
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Children's magazines flourished, and by the end of the century there were Realism took a gloomy turn by frequently showing the maltreatment of children from lower classes. The most popular boys' material was Sherlock Holmes , and similar stories from detective magazines. The state took control of children's literature during the October Revolution.
Maksim Gorky edited the first children's Northern Lights under Soviet rule. With a children's branch, the official oversight of the professional organization brought children's writers under the control of the state and the police. Communist principles like collectivism and solidarity became important themes in children's literature. Authors wrote biographies about revolutionaries like Lenin and Pavlik Morozov.
Alexander Belyayev , who wrote in the s and s, became Russia's first science fiction writer. Today, the field is in a state of flux because some older authors are being rediscovered and others are being abandoned. The Chinese Revolution of and World War II brought political and social change that revolutionized children's literature in China. Western science, technology, and literature became fashionable. China's first modern publishing firm, Commercial Press , established several children's magazines, which included Youth Magazine , and Educational Pictures for Children. Yuxiu encouraged novelist Shen Dehong to write for children as well.
Dehong went on to rewrite 28 stories based on classical Chinese literature specifically for children. The Chinese Revolution of changed children's literature again. Many children's writers were denounced, but Tianyi and Ye Shengtao continued to write for children and created works that were aligned with Maoist ideology. The death of Mao Zedong provoked more changes that swept China. The work of many writers from the early part of the century became available again.
In came General Anthology of Modern Children's Literature of China , a fifteen-volume anthology of children's literature since the s. The series is considered representative of Brazilian children's literature and the Brazilian equivalent to children's classics such as C. Lewis , The Chronicles of Narnia and L. Christian missionaries first established the Calcutta School-Book Society in the 19th century, creating a separate genre for children's literature in that country.
Magazines and books for children in native languages soon appeared. Nobel Prize -winner Rabindranath Tagore wrote plays, stories, and poems for children, including one work illustrated by painter Nandalal Bose. They worked from the end of the nineteenth century into the beginning of the twentieth. Tagore's work was later translated into English, with Bose's pictures. His stories were didactic in nature. The first full-length children's book was Khar Khar Mahadev by Narain Dixit , which was serialized in one of the popular children's magazines in Other writers include Premchand , and poet Sohan Lal Dwivedi.
Bengali children's literature flourished in the later part of the twentieth century. Educator Gijubhai Badheka published over books in the Children's literature in Gujarati language , and many are still popular. In , political cartoonist K.
retreatplansio.ghst.pro/105-azithromycin-e-chloroquine.php Shankar Pillai founded the Children's Book Trust publishing company. The firm became known for high quality children's books, and many of them were released in several languages. He wrote biographies of many historical personalities, such as Kapila Deva.